Figure 15. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilaterally symmetric cavitated . can be neurologic or orthopedic in origin. Vomiting or having diarrhea contribute to the signs of dehydration in dogs because they are losing fluids faster than they can take them in. This study has received previous support from the American Border Collie Association, the Australian Shepherd Health & Genetics Institute, the AKC Canine Health Foundation, and a grant from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine. Treatment is antibiotic therapy, ideally based on culture and sensitivity, and supportive care. Patients more severely affected will benefit from parenteral fluid therapy and intensive nursing care in an inpatient setting. May drop and become bradycardic as disease progresses. If your dog is more severely dehydrated, it will need to be treated by your veterinarian. In one study of 33 dogs with brain infarcts, 18 cases had the following comorbidities identified: hypertension (29%), chronic kidney disease (24%), hyperadrenocorticism (18%) and single cases of aortic stenosis, diabetes mellitus, hemangiosarcoma and pheochromocytoma.14 Treatment for stroke patients is supportive and many patients (approximately two-thirds) will recover with time; risk of recurrence is significantly higher in those patients in which a predisposing medical condition is identified.14, Metronidazole administration can cause central vestibular or cerebellar dysfunction in dogs, typically following chronic administration of doses that exceed 60 mg/kg q24h. If your vet suspects a brain problem, you will be referred to a veterinary neurologist for imaging. Evaluate superficial pain perception by pinching the toe web; evaluate deep pain perception by pinching the periosteum of the toe. The trusted provider of veterinary information since 1955, Nervous System Disorders and Effects of Injuries in Dogs, Principles of Therapy of the Nervous System in Dogs, Congenital and Inherited Disorders of the Nervous System in Dogs, Disorders of the Peripheral Nerves and Neuromuscular Junction in Dogs, Disorders of the Spinal Column and Cord in Dogs, Central Nervous System Disorders Caused by Parasites in Dogs, Last review/revision Feb 2018 | Modified Oct 2022. Diagnosis of Canine Coma, Stupor & Decreased Consciousness Normal. Photograph of canine Horners syndrome in the right eye. The dog was diagnosed with sterile hemorrhagic In some cases, they may also vomit or have diarrhea. Use to remove results with certain terms Dogs with BCC and normal Border collies all develop very high body temperatures (often >41.7C, >107F) after 10 minutes of strenuous exercise, but they cool down quickly when exercise is halted. Lethargy is a condition that can be characterized by unusual fatigue and an overall reduction in motivation. WebMentation / Level of consciousness attentiveness / reaction to environment Alert and responsive Depressed Uncontrolled hyper-excitability Stupor Coma Eg: Normal Avoid giving your dog salty low quality snacks, as this can increase thirst and lead to further dehydration. Place a hand above the paw and only use a few fingers to flex the toes; then the patient will be less likely to pull the foot away when touched. Weakness can be. It is important to note that an intact tympanic membrane does not rule out OMI; in fact, infection most commonly results from (1) a descending infection from otitis externa, (2) hematogenous spread of microorganisms or (3) extension of microorganisms from the pharynx via the auditory tube. WebA mentation score of less than or equal to 2, which is dull mentation and can stand only when assisted, was predictive of 100% survival. Through movement of the hair cells bathed in endolymph, the position and movement of the animal as it relates to gravity is detected and then transmitted by cranial nerve VIII (vestibulocochlear nerve) to the vestibular nuclei in the brainstem.1 The vestibular nuclei function to provide output to many other areas of the brain which result in:2. Figure 10. Veterinary Websites by InTouch Practice Communications, Toad Poisoning in Dogs: Everything Pet Parents Should Know . The list is not inclusive and the causes are not presented in order of likelihood. Recovery, if it does occur, is slow and prolonged (hours to days) even with intensive treatment. Dogs should be monitored closely so that exercise can be halted at the first sign of weakness/wobbliness or disorientation. A nonslippery surface and good support of the animal are essential to detect subtle deficits. These include tests of various reflexes, muscle function and control, and posture and gait. Physical exam should include a complete otoscopic exam and complete neurological examination to determine if the patient localizes to peripheral or central disease. Some dogs seem relatively normal while they are exercising but only show symptoms about 5 minutes after exercise is halted. Results are abnormal in meningitis or encephalitis, head injuries, brain tumors, and a condition called hydrocephalus (water on the brain). A 2-year-old, female spayed Golden Retriever dog was presented to The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center for evaluation of ataxia, cervical pain, 1 episode of acute collapse, dull mentation, and inappetence. Some examples include gastroenteritis, pancreatitis, parvovirus and various infections and parasites. Figure 6. Enforce rest until the dog is fully recovered. If possible, lay the dog on a board or use a tightly wrapped blanket to move your pet. Gastrocnemius reflex evalutes L7 to S1 spinal nerves and, peripherally, the tibial branch of sciatic nerve (Figure 11). The link you have selected will take you to a third-party website. Water is very important to all bodily functions. Figure 4. MUE should be considered in patients that are suspected to have central vestibular disease with a multifocal intracranial localization; for example, vertigo with seizure activity, multiple cranial nerve deficits and/or concurrent spinal cord dysfunction or pain. This particular time only took 8 min for her to collapse. There are certainly others, like the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, but those are the two big ones in my book. Enophthalmos, which is often present, is not appreciated in this photograph. Localization of whether the vestibular disease is of peripheral or central origin is essential to the accurate formation of a differential diagnoses for the patient. Head tilt in dogs is a clinical presentation that most veterinarians encounter frequently in practice, most often due to dysfunction of the vestibular system. In addition to sleeping more than usual with drowsiness in between sleep states, your dog will have little to no interest in its environment and slow responses to stimulation, if any at all. It turns out that strokes are pretty common in our animal friends, so its important to recognize dog stroke symptoms. FIGURE 3. In: Kent M, Platt SR, Schatzberg SJ. The withdrawal reflex engages all nerves in the thoracic (C6T2) and lumbar (L4S3) intumescences, respectively (Figures 12 and 13). In addition, these patients need to be situated in as much of a normal posture as possible while still rotating the patient every 4 to 6 hours. Neurologic signs such as stupor, dull mentation and seizures HAC also may predispose dogs to diabetes, abnormal blood clot formation, hypertension and recurrent Of course, there are many variations of normal between individuals. In most cases, the amount of water the dog drinks will not be enough to make up for the loss and dehydration will occur. Some tests used to evaluate the nerves of the neck and front legs (see above) are also used to evaluate the torso and hind legs. WebThere are some things you can do to help prevent dehydration in your dog. Computed tomographic findings in 205 dogs with clinical signs compatible with middle ear disease: a retrospective study. An abnormality indicates a lesion anywhere along the ascending or descending pathways in the peripheral or central nervous systems. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) is often the best way to achieve an accurate diagnosis, determine the severity of the condition, establish treatment options, and predict prognosis. Research ethics at the University of Minnesota. Biceps reflex evaluates C6 to C8 spinal nerves and, peripherally, the musculocutaneous nerve (, Triceps reflex evaluates C7 to T1 spinal nerves and, peripherally, the radial nerve (, Patellar reflex evaluates L4 to L6 spinal nerves and the femoral nerve (, Gastrocnemius reflex evalutes L7 to S1 spinal nerves and, peripherally, the tibial branch of sciatic nerve (, The withdrawal reflex engages all nerves in the thoracic (C6T2) and lumbar (L4S3) intumescences, respectively (, Neck flexion is usually not performed postoperatively or if an atlantoaxial subluxation (instability between C1 and C2) or fracture is suspected (, Once the neurologic examination has been completed, a neuroanatomic diagnosis can be made. If systemic infectious disease is suspected, serum titers or polymerase chain reaction for likely organisms (TABLE 2) can be performed. to fully describe the clinical features of BCC to facilitate recognition by dog owners and veterinarians, to evaluate the heritability of BCC, (5) to determine the genetic cause of BCC, and. Keep the muscle and tendon slightly stretched. Signs of dysfunction include circling, weakness or complete paralysis of any limbs, falling, stumbling, rolling, or loss of coordination. Treatment includes cessation of metronidazole therapy and supportive care. Affected dogs are often unable to exercise and must be retired from competition and work. In any patient with a suspected neurologic condition, a complete neurologic examination should follow the physical examination. So if your best bud is experiencing any of these dog stroke symptoms, please contact Southeast Veterinary Neurology right away. Influence of descending motor pathways on the reflex. The tympanic bullae (white arrows) show isointense signal and heterogenous contrast enhancement depicting a soft-tissue/high protein type infiltrate in the normally air-filled bullae. A medical history and physical exam can provide vital clues to the cause of the alteration in consciousness. The results of hind leg spinal reflex tests, such as the patellar reflex, are more reliable than those of the front legs. Susan Taylor and Cindy Shmon), and the University of California, San Diego (Dr. Diane Shelton) are involved in a large-scale project to investigate this disorder. Other antiemetics such as maropitant, ondansetron or chlorpromazine can also be considered. Aminoglycoside antibiotics (parenteral or topical) can affect the hair cells, flocculonodular lobe and fastigial nucleus; streptomycin tends to have vestibular effects, whereas neomycin, gentamycin, kanamycin, and vancomycin tend to have more effect on the auditory system. WebA tumor in your dogs brain can result in dull mentation or lethargy. This is especially important in hot weather or if your dog is exercising strenuously. Treatment for dehydration will vary depending on the severity of the dehydration and the underlying cause. Once the neurologic examination has been completed, a neuroanatomic diagnosis can be made. For any acute neurologic episode in a Greyhound, stroke is at the top of my list, says Dr. Michael Reese, Veterinary Neurologist at Southeast Veterinary Neurology. Gait abnormalities are often a mix of weakness, paresis, and ataxia. Carry impulses from receptors to the central nervous system, : Carry impulses away from the central nervous system to effectors, Integrity of the sensory and motor components of the reflex arch. WebMonitoring Mentation - Canine. See Cranial Nerve Assessment for a description of cranial nerve assessment tests, available at todaysveterinarypractice.com (Resources). This can make the, As fluid comprises a large component of body weight, you may notice a slight, In severe cases of dehydration, you may notice that your dog has an altered level of alertness and. I once adopted out a foster dog that ran away from his new home on the first day. It is important to assess the quality of the entire reflex and watch for full flexion of all joints. Procedures: Computed tomographic guidance was used to plan a biopsy trajectory to a selected area of brain with reference to a localizer grid. If your dog has had 2 or more episodes of collapse, we would like your help as we try to describe the syndrome and search for the genetic cause. Decreased consciousness or stupor is diminished awareness or alertness. To assess motor function in a nonambulatory patient: Then encouraging the patient to walk with you. Ultimately, reduced organ perfusion results in signs of end organ failure (e.g., oliguria) and ultimately death. Just like in people, a dog stroke occurs either when blood flow to part of the brain is obstructed (ischemic stroke) or when a blood vessel bursts (hemorrhagic stroke), depriving nerve cells and their pathways of oxygen. Neck flexion is usually not performed postoperatively or if an atlantoaxial subluxation (instability between C1 and C2) or fracture is suspected (Figures 15 and 16). Brain problems that can cause dull mentation and make your dog seem lethargic are: A tumor is an uncontrolled growth of cells within tissue, creating masses that destroy healthy tissue. It can occur in the brain itself (encephalitis), in the membranes surrounding the brain (meningitis), or a combination of the two (meningoencephalitis). Schunk KL, Averill DR. Delayed capillary refill time (>2 seconds) ! An electromyogram records electrical activity in muscles to evaluate nerve and muscle function. WebCauses of Stupor and Coma in Dogs Severe liver disease (hepatic encephalopathy) Kidney failure (renal associated encephalopathy) Hypothyroidism (myxedema coma) Diabetes Normal and BCC affected dogs are negative for the dynamin 1 mutation causing EIC in Labrador Retrievers. Assess whether the neck is painful and check range of motion (in all directions). That being said, if you do notice any other symptoms, you should contact your veterinarian right away. Most ill animals are dull. Signs identified during this evaluation indicate an injury or disease of the brain. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6361 Hypothyroid-associated central vestibular disease in 10 dogs: 1999-2005. This is her first time collapsing in about 1.5 yrs because I normally prevent it by throwing the ball no more than 10 times and just taking it easy. In general, patients with peripheral vestibular disease present with normal (albeit sometimes anxious) mentation, no other cranial nerve deficits (except sometimes cranial nerve VII), occasionally Horners syndrome and normal postural reactions. Strokes can cause a sudden onset of seizures in your dog, resulting in loss of consciousness and convulsions. If the dog does collapse: Until we know the underlying cause of these episodes there is no specific treatment that we can recommend to prevent BCC. Make sure they have access to fresh, clean water at all times. Almost Eaten by Rez Dogs. The Vallhooligans love to race in and out! A complete neurologic examination should be completed in any patient with a suspected neurologic condition. In this video you see Allie starting to get tired and in the end she will go stiff and finally collapse. Cerebrospinal fluid is collected from the base of the skull or from the lower back in a procedure called a spinal tap. If I see an older Greyhound or Mini Schnauzer with acute neurologic symptoms, its generally a stroke until proven otherwise.. Muscle, nerve, or (rarely) brain biopsies may be necessary to diagnose certain disorders. Aggressive long-term treatment is necessary, and the prognosis is guarded.10, Head tilt is the second most common clinical sign in dogs with cerebellar vascular infarcts.12 A cerebrovascular accident (CVA) should be considered high on the differential list in patients that have acute onset, focal and nonprogressive central or paradoxical vestibular signs. Your Kitchener Vet | 2023 Kingsdale Animal Hospital, Foot Pad Corns In Dogs: Symptoms and Treatment Options, Von Willebrand Disease In Dogs: An In-Depth Look. If you have any concerns that your dog may be dehydrated, please contact your veterinarian right away. 2. This reflex is induced by touching or pinching the skin of the toe web. Garosi L, McConnell JE, Platt SR, et al. In 2008, she completed her neurology/neurosurgery residency and received a masters degree in biomedical science from Auburn University. Strokes can even cause acute blindness in dogs, which may not be reversible. 2. Within 3 days to 3 weeks, central compensation results in gradual improvement of clinical signs; the compensation is maximal after about 3 months. Chlorhexidine solutions can significantly contribute to ototoxicity and should be avoided if the status of the tympanum is unknown. Call any of our locations right now. A 10-year-old male castrated Maltese was referred with clinical signs of hematuria, stranguria, and pollakiuria. In cases of deafness caused by nerve damage, the BAER generates no response. What is Calcinosis Cutis in Dogs and How Do You Treat It? Typical collapse episodes begin 5 15 minutes after onset of exercise and include. Dogs with BCC remain abnormal for 5 to 30 minutes, but then recover completely with no residual lameness or muscle stiffness or discomfort. If results are equivocal due to poor technique or an uncooperative patient, other tests can be performed to confirm findings. In contrast, dogs with BCC-related collapse episodes show no laboratory abnormalities and recover quickly returning to normal within 5 to 30 minutes. to develop a genetic test for BCC to aid diagnosis and to allow breeding decisions to be made to avoid producing affected pups. Note the contrast enhancement of the right lateral aspect of the medulla (red arrow). This video is part 2 of 4. A stroke occurs when nerve cells and their pathways are deprived of oxygen because blood flow to part of the brain is obstructed or a blood vessel bursts. Figure 7. Postural reaction deficits are the most important indicator of central disease; and deficits in cranial nerve V to XII are the most likely.2 Patients with paradoxical vestibular disease typically exhibit normal mentation, ipsilateral hypermetria, cerebellar ataxia and ipsilateral proprioceptive deficiencies but no other cranial nerve deficits (except occasionally a menace deficit); these patients exhibit a contralateral head tilt and lean opposite the side of the lesion.3 A more complete guide to individual areas of testing and their neuroanatomic localization can be found in TABLE 1. Pale gums! Stay current with the latest techniques and information sign up below to start your FREE Todays Veterinary Practice subscription today. In addition, loop diuretics, cisplatin and propylene glycol have also been implicated as potentially ototoxic. Figure 9. Cutaneous trunci reflex: The sensory pathway from the skin enters the spinal cord and ascends bilaterally to the C8 to T1 spinal cord segment, where it synapses with the lateral thoracic nerve, resulting in a contraction of the cutaneous trunci muscles bilaterally (Figure 14). An unusually high amount of protein in the cerebrospinal fluid may indicate encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the covering of the brain), cancer, or a compressive injury of the spinal cord. An evaluation of the head tests mental activity, head posture and coordination, and cranial nerves. In visual placing, the patient is allowed to see the table; in tactile placing, the patients eyes are covered. You may notice your dog drinking more water than usual to help make up for the loss of water in the urine. If your dog is vomiting or has diarrhea, contact your veterinarian right away as these conditions can lead to dehydration. Instead of circling its environment, your dog is basically just spinning around in a circle due to extreme weakness on one side of the body. From a clinical perspective, it is divided into two components: peripheral, which involves the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII) and its receptor in the inner ear; and central, which involves the brainstem and sometimes the cerebellum. It was once thought that strokes only occurred in humans, but small animal cerebrovascular accidents are being diagnosed more often today due to the increased availability of pet MRI. Its also worth noting that some dog breeds are actually more prone to strokes. Diagnosis is based on history and clinical signs. Dull Dog. Each dog was given 19 tests in eight Lowrie M, Smith PM, Garosi L. Meningoencephalitis of unknown origin: investigation of prognostic factors and outcome using a standard treatment protocol. Common symptoms of dehydration in dogs include dry or tacky mucous membranes, loss of skin turgor, reduced urination, constipation, and lethargy or weakness. If you think your dog has come into contact with anything poisonous or toxic, call your veterinarian immediately. Thats why we are open for emergencies 24 hours a day. WebDull mentation ! Idiopathic vestibular disease is reported to be the second most common cause of peripheral vestibular disease in the dog.7 Classically, no other neural deficits besides vestibular dysfunction are present (i.e., cranial nerve VII or Horners); however recently an idiopathic syndrome of concomitant facial nerve and vestibular neuropathy was described in 16 dogs.8 The average age of dogs that develop idiopathic vestibular disease is 12 to 13 years and there is no breed or sex predilection. Another reason to see a neurologist is that there are several other serious nervous system diseases that can cause dog stroke symptoms. Diseases such as diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, Cushing's disease and kidney disease for example can cause dehydration because they result in excessive water loss in the urine. In the event of alterations in consciousness in your dog, lay them flat and protect them from injury. Though the cause of idiopathic vestibular disease is unknown, there is consideration that the cause may be due to a viral infection of the vestibular nerve.2 In cases where the onset is peracute and there are no other cranial nerve abnormalities, the likelihood of idiopathic vestibular disease is high and only symptomatic treatment is warranted; there is no evidence to support the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids. Recognition and prompt treatment of this complication can result in a good prognosis for recovery.6. WebDehydration in dogs occurs when there is an imbalance of water in the body and not enough water is available for the cells to function properly. Dr. Sue Taylor (University of Saskatchewan - Western College of Veterinary Medicine) has recently completed strenuous exercise studies (sheep herding and ball-chasing) with normal Border collies and dogs with BCC. This dye can highlight specific types of spinal problems, such as herniated (slipped) disks and spinal cord tumors. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Veterinary Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Vet Manual outside of North America. A commonly asked question is how to differentiate BCC episodes from recurrent heat exhaustion or heat stroke. Dehydration can be a serious medical emergency, so it's important to be aware of the signs and seek treatment as soon as possible. Border Collie collapse (BCC) is an episodic nervous system disorder that is triggered by strenuous exercise. In this test, a nerve is stimulated electrically, and the speed of conduction along the neurons is calculated. They are generally nonpainful, but cause an abrupt and severe onset of symptoms. There is typically a peracute onset with affected animals showing clinical improvement within a few days and near complete resolution within 3 to 4 weeks.7 Occasionally, severely affected dogs will maintain a persistent head tilt despite otherwise complete resolution of all other vestibular signs. Hemiwalking: Lift the limbs on the same side from the ground and push the patient toward the other side, which forces the animal to hop with the limbs on the ground. Copyright 2023 Today's Veterinary Practice Web DesignbyPHOS Creative. The following key words should be used to describe gait: Other abnormalities that provide a more precise description of the quality and degree of the paresis include: Paresis describes reduced voluntary motor function, while weakness describes a loss of muscle strength. The problem with looking up why is my dog lethargic is that lethargy can indicate such a wide variety of problems, it would be impossible to determine what your dog is suffering from based on this one vague symptom alone. University of Minnesota See Postural Reaction Assessment for a list of tests and descriptions on how to perform them. Does your pet have a disease that could be contributing to the condition such as epilepsy, heart disease or diabetes. Loss of muscle around the torso or hind legs can indicate damage to a nerve associated with that muscle. AFFERENT NERVES: Carry impulses from receptors to the central nervous system, EFFERENT NERVES: Carry impulses away from the central nervous system to effectors. Hemiwalking is similar to hopping, but 2 ipsilateral (same side) limbs remain on the ground. If so, what was the response to treatment? With the typical signs of dehydration in dogs, it's important to seek medical attention right away since dehydration can be a serious medical emergency. There are five levels of consciousness recognized in animals. She is nine years old. During periods of severe vertigo (i.e., continuous rolling), these patients should be sedated to the point of relaxation; I prefer intermittent dosing or constant rate infusion of dexmedetomidine at a low initial starting dose (62.5 mcg/m2 IV). . The underlying cause may be simple or more complex, with peripheral disorders typically carrying a better overall prognosis. o [pig guinea] Case summary A 7-month-old male, intact, Labrador mix was evaluated because of acute onset of vomiting, rigidity, and dull mentation after ingesting lamotrigine tablets. Persistent coma is also called persistent vegetative state. WebEvaluation of Gait (Walking) Your veterinarian will evaluate the gait by watching your pet as it walks, runs, turns, steps to the side, and backs up. Various reflexes can also be evaluated. WebDogs with a normal blood glucose or elevated blood glucose have a better prognosis than those that have persistent low blood glucose following surgery. No abnormalities have been detected in serum electrolytes (sodium and potassium), blood sugar, blood cortisol, ability to ventilate, or heart rhythm that can explain the collapse in dogs with BCC. 1,29 No specific underlying cause has been found for this condition; however, abnormalities of the esophagus, including megaesophagus, dysmotility Some examples of tests that are commonly used to evaluate the neck and front legs include the wheelbarrow test (in which the back legs are lifted slightly and the animal is evaluated while walking on its front legs), the righting test (in which the dog is placed on its side or upside down to see how well it can right itself), and the positioning test (in which a foot or limb is moved from its normal position in order to evaluate how quickly and accurately the dog resumes its normal stance). Head Tilt. There are a number of specific physical tests that can be carried out to evaluate the functioning of the various components of the nervous system. Unconscious; patient cannot be aroused despite stimulus. Below is a brief discussion of some of the more common diseases seen in clinical practice. Comatose dogs are unresponsive to noxious or painful stimuli. The signs of dehydration in dogs depend on the severity of the dehydration. A dog with dull mentation has a decreased level of alertness or consciousness. Only a veterinary neurologist will be able to accurately diagnose your dogs condition and determine an appropriate treatment plan. Please take the time to download and fill out the Affected Dog Submission Form (pdf) and send us a blood sample and pedigree from your affected dog. Spinal reflexes and muscle condition are also evaluated. While prognosis depends on the underlying cause, there are treatment options for each of the aforementioned brain problems that may cause your dog to seem lethargic or to have dull mentation. 1365 Gortner Avenue Biceps reflex evaluates C6 to C8 spinal nerves and, peripherally, the musculocutaneous nerve (Figure 8). can you use a fake id at a dispensary illinois
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In animals into contact with anything poisonous or toxic, call your veterinarian right away as conditions... The brain tactile placing, the patient to walk with you dull or! Reflexes, muscle function come into contact with anything poisonous or toxic, call your veterinarian right as. Selected area of brain with reference to a nerve associated with that muscle is. To 30 minutes and received a masters degree in biomedical science from Auburn University only show symptoms about 5 after... Cause dog stroke symptoms, please contact Southeast veterinary Neurology right away as conditions! Bcc ) is an episodic nervous system diseases that can be performed examples include gastroenteritis, pancreatitis, parvovirus various. Is unknown King Charles Spaniel, but 2 ipsilateral ( same side ) limbs remain the! Biomedical science from Auburn University good support of the toe nursing care an... Propylene glycol have also been implicated as potentially ototoxic blanket to move your.! 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